Monday, March 5th 2018 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

Ghazala Azmat
(Sciences Po and CEP (LSE) )
with Stefania Simion (University of Edinburgh)
Higher Education Funding Reforms: A Comprehensive Analysis of Educational and Labour Market Outcomes in England

Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of changes in the funding of higher education in England on students’ choices and outcomes. Over the last two decades – through three major reforms in 1998, 2006 and 2012 – undergraduate university education in public universities moved from being free to students and state funded to charging substantial tuition fees to all students. This was done in conjunction with the government offering generous means-tested maintenance grants and loans. Using detailed longitudinal micro-data that follows all students attending state schools in England (more than 90 percent of all school-aged children) from lower education to higher education, we document the socio-economic distributional effects of the 2006 and 2012 policy reforms on a comprehensive set of outcomes, including enrolment, relocation decisions, selection of institution, program of study, and performance within university. For a subset of students, we track them after completing higher education, allowing us to study the labour market effects of the policy reforms. Despite the substantial higher education funding reforms, we do not find large aggregate effect on student enrolment or on other margins. Moreover, the small negative impacts found on enrolment were largely borne on those in higher parts of the wealth distribution – reducing the enrolment gap across socio-economic groups.

 

Advertisements

Monday, February 19th 2018 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

Raja Kali
(University of Arkansas)
with A. W. Horowitz (U. Arkansas) and H. Song (Bellarmine U.)
Re-thinking the aid-growth relationship: A network approach

Abstract: Over forty years of conventional economic analysis has not reached consensus on the effect of foreign aid on recipient country growth. We provide new insight into this relationship by using a network approach to characterize the topological properties of the OECD foreign aid network. Viewing the OECD foreign aid community as an interdependent and complex system, we characterize not only the amount of aid but also the position of both donor and recipient within the network. We find that the degree centrality of the recipient, with an edge inclusion threshold that sets a minimum share of a donor’s aid to a particular recipient, is significantly correlated with the growth impact of that donor’s aid. Contrarily, aid is uncorrelated with growth with a recipient-side filter on the importance of the donor to the recipient. These results suggest that the importance of a recipient within the donor’s network, rather than the volume of aid alone, is associated with the growth impact of bilateral aid. We explore mechanisms for these findings that include the complementarity of aid from multiple attentive donors. Our findings speak to the aid-growth puzzle and suggest that network metrics may illuminate non-obvious channels of aid impact.

 

Monday, January 22nd 2018 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

Maria Bas
(Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne)
with Caroline Paunov (OECD)

 

Input-Quality Upgrading from Trade Liberalization: Evidence on Firm Product Scope and Employment Effects

 

Abstract: Does input-trade liberalization foster firm product innovation and employment size? Using detailed firm-product level data for Ecuador, we exploit the unilateral trade liberalization episode when the country entered the World Trade Organisation in 1996 to identify the causal effect of exogenous input tariff changes on the product scope and employment size of importing firms. We show that access to high-quality important inputs led importers to expand the number of products. The producers of new products and importers of foreign inputs also increased their employment size. Our findings show that input-trade liberalization, through the quality-upgrading channel, resulted in skill-biased production processes.

     Monday, December 4th 2017 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

Gonzague Vannoorenberghe
(Université Catholique de Louvain)
with M. Parenti (Universite Libre de Bruxelles)

 

A Theory of New Trade Agreements

 

Abstract: This paper develops a model where countries set quality standards to solve the externalities associated with the consumption of goods. Countries differ in their assessment of the externality and set different standards in autarky. When opening to trade, both countries can stick to their standard, accept the other country’s standard (mutual recognition) or negotiate a middle way (harmonization). We show that trade is not necessarily welfare enhancing when countries choose very different standards in autarky and that a comparison of autarky prices is not sufficient to determine the effects of international trade. The model captures some of the key trade policy issues which emerged during TTIP and CETA negotiations, helping to guide the evaluation of deep trade agreements.

     Monday, November 20th 2017 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

Giuseppe Berlingieri
(ESSEC business school & OECD)
with Sara Calligaris (OECD) and Chiara Criscuolo (OECD)

 

Does the Sector Matter? Unbundling the Size-Productivity-Wage Premium

 

Abstract: Ever since Moore (1911) a large empirical and theoretical literature has established the existence of a firm size-wage premium. At the same time, a second regularity in empirical work, linking size and productivity, has inspired a vast literature in multiple fields. However, the majority of the existing evidence is based on manufacturing data only. With manufacturing nowadays accounting for a very small share of the economy in many countries, whether productivity, size, and wages are closely linked, and how tight this link is across sectors, is still an open question.
Using a unique dataset that collects micro-aggregated firm-level information on productivity, size, and wages for the entire economy in 14 countries over the 1994-2012 period, this paper unveils a much more subtle picture. First, while in the manufacturing sector both productivity and wages increase monotonically with firm size, the same is not true in the service sector. Second, a tight and positive link between wages and productivity is instead found in both manufacturing and services. The combination of these results suggests that, when looking at data for a much larger share of the economy, the “size-wage premium” becomes more a “productivity-wage premium”. Unbundling the relationship between size, wages, and productivity has first-order policy implications for both workers and firms.

     Monday, November 6th 2017 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

José de Sousa
(RITM, Université Paris-Sud)
with Thierry Mayer (SciencesPo) and Eve Sihra (Hebrew University)

 

Market Integration and Convergence in Consumption Patterns

 

Abstract: This paper explores whether market integration makes culture converge. Using household survey data on food consumption in France from 1974 to 2005, we find that (1) France is characterized by strong localized tastes, which (2) converge over time, but (3) this convergence is not only due to price and income convergence: in short, France becomes “flatter”, more homogenized. We use an Almost Ideal Demand System to identify regional residual parameters after taking into account price and income effects. These residuals allow us to compute a bilateral taste distance that we regress on bilateral trade costs, conditioning on region fixed effects. We find that distance in taste is positively correlated with trade costs, but with a decreasing effect over time, supporting evidence of a culture convergence.

     Monday, October 9th 2017 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

Ahmed Tritah
(Université du Maine)
with Catherinee Laffineur (Nice), Eva Moreno-Galbis (Aix-Marseille), Jérémy Tanguy (Savoie)

 

Are immigrants’ skills price differently? Evidence from France

 

Abstract:

Over the last two decades, despite similar employment dynamics, immigrants and natives in France have experienced different wage changes along the occupational wage distribution. We explain this pattern within a Roy-type wage setting and relate changes in the occupational wage distribution to changes in task-specific skill returns and skill prices. We show that immigrants wage growth has outperformed that of natives along the whole occupational wage distribution. This pattern is explained by changes in immigrants’ relative skill endowment which allows them to move upward the occupational wage ladder. The sources of immigrants relative wage performance are also heterogeneous. Among the less skilled, minimum wage changes over the period are the main determinant. Instead, the wage performance of the more skilled is rather driven by the dynamics of their comparative advantages across tasks.