Rezart Hoxhaj

Monday, November 28, 2022 — 12:00-01:00pm

Room S18, MSE

 The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on work from home of ethnic groups: Evidence from U.S time-use data.

Rezart Hoxhaj

(Ghent University)

co-authored with Florian Miti (University of Vlorë Isamil Qemali)

Using time-use data for the U.S., we analyze impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on participation and time allocated to work from home by ethnic/racial groups. Difference-in-Difference estimates show that the pandemic increased work from home of Asians of both genders. For men this increase is explained mainly by a higher participation in paid work from home, while for women the increase is explained by both a higher participation and by more time spent in paid work from home. Possible explanations could be: (i) the higher ability of Asians to perform remote work, that is related to their skills and competencies; and (ii) the rise of discrimination against Asians that affected their willingness to work from home. This paper contributes to the understanding of the heterogeneous impact of COVID-19 on well-being, health risks and work-life balance, and more generally on inequalities among ethnic/racial groups in the US.

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Olle Folke

Monday, November 14, 2022 — 12:00-01:00pm

Room S18, MSE

The gender gap in meaningful work: Drivers and implications

Olle Folke

(Uppsala University)

co-authored with Vanessa Burbano (Columbia University), Stephen Meier (Columbia University) and Johanna Rickne (Stockholm University)

An understanding of gender differences in non-monetary work conditions is fundamental for a complete characterization of individuals’ well-being at work, that is, to fully characterize gender inequalities in the labor market. We examine one such condition—meaningful work—using nationally representative survey data linked with worker and employer administrative data. We document a large and expanding gender gap in meaningful work, wherein women experience their jobs as more meaningful than men. We find little support for explanations based in labor market decisions related to first parenthood or to women’s under-representation in leadership jobs. Instead, the gap appears largely driven by sorting of more women into jobs with a high level of beneficence—the sense of having a prosocial impact—such as nurse or midwife. While both women and men experience such jobs as more meaningful, women do so by a larger margin, which may result from an alignment between beneficence and the stereotypical female role. Turning to implications, we explore how women’s advantage in meaningful work compensates for their wage disadvantage. While this compensation is about one-third in the lower half of the wage distribution, it is insignificant in the upper half, where the gender wage gap is most pronounced. We also uncover suggestive evidence linking men’s lower experience of meaningful work to the political trend of grievance-based mobilization for the populist radical right, pointing to political implications of the gender gap.

Guzmán Ourens

Monday, October 17, 2022 — 12:00-01:00pm

Room S115, MSE

Geographic concentration of imports and economic vulnerability of countries

Guzmán Ourens

(Tilburg University)

co-authored with Florian Mayneris (UQAM)

Recent major global events have revived interest for reducing exposure to economic vulnerability from the rest of the world. This paper introduce indexes that measure different dimensions of economic vulnerability by exploiting the network structure of trade data. Focus is placed in the average geographic concentration of a country’s imports and that of its direct suppliers. We show that: i-these indexes correlate with various measures of economic vulnerability, ii-concentration has declined on average over time, and iii-this cannot be attributed to changes in the concentration of the supply.

Laura Hering

Monday, October 10, 2022 — 12:00-01:00pm

Room S115, MSE

Is there a bright side to the China Syndrome? Rising export opportunities and life satisfaction in China

Laura Hering

(Erasmus University Rotterdam)

co-authored with Sandra Poncet (Paris School of Economics, University of Paris 1) and Matthieu Crozet (University Paris-Saclay).

The rise of  Chinese exports  has been identified as a source of harmful disruptions in importing countries. It contributed to job destruction, labor market polarization, and political tensions. In China, the internationalization of the economy has bolstered the economic development and increased incomes, but it has also shaken up social structures and work environments. This paper explores the overall effect of exports on individual welfare in China. We use a longitudinal survey on the perceived quality of life for about 45,000 Chinese individuals that we match with a (shift-share) measure of export opportunities in their locality. We show that individual perceived life satisfaction rises significantly in prefectures that experienced higher export opportunities despite a negative effect on self-reported health. The positive well-being gains go beyond a mere income effect. We further show that these non-monetary gains transit via the local labor market and working conditions:  the export-related well-being gains that we measure exist only for working-age individuals (in particular men and low-skilled workers) and are found when the satisfaction indicator focuses on work but not on family.

Morgan Raux

Monday, October 3, 2022 — 12:00-01:00pm

Room S18, MSE

International College Students’ Impact on the US Skilled Labor Supply

Morgan Raux

(University of Luxembourg)

co-authored with Michel Beine (University of Luxembourg, IZA, CES-Ifo) and Giovanni Peri (UC Davis, NBER)

US universities have attracted hundreds of thousands of international students each year for the last decade. Some of these remain in the US after graduating and contribute to the high skilled labor supply in US labor markets. In this paper, we identify and estimate by how much one more international master’s (or bachelor’s) student increases the skilled labor supply of the US in the short-run. To estimate this “transition rate” we implement an instrumental variable estimation using quasi-random variation in the tuition charged to international students by public US universities in the year that they likely started their studies. We find that attracting an additional international student to a US university increases the local labor supply by about 0.23 employees for master’s students and about 0.11 for bachelor’s students. These averages conceal an important difference. While non-STEM bachelor’s and master’s students had negligible transition rates into US employment, STEM Master students have had significant transition rates around 0.2, especially after the 2008 reform of Optional Practical Training for STEM graduates.

Pamina Koenig

Monday, September 5, 2022 — 12:00-01:00pm

Room S17, MSE

Port ownership and international trade

Pamina Koenig

(University of Rouen-Normandie, LERN, PSE)

co-authored with Claude Duvallet (U Le Havre), Yoann Pigné (U Le Havre), Sandra Poncet (U Paris 1), Mathieu Sanch Maritan (U St Etienne)

Foreign private and public investment in container ports may be driven by various motivations, including security of supply, investment profitability, and increased export market share. This paper analyzes the consequences of foreign port ownership on the geography and efficiency of the European shipping network. European ports have been the object of partial or complete takeovers by government-owned Chinese companies, in the context of the Belt and Road Initiative. Port-calls data over the period 2015-2019 allow us to observe the European stops chosen by container ships on their routes betwen Asia and countries of the European continent. We adopt a conditional logit approach to estimate whether Chinese-owned vessels have an increased probability of choosing a given port after it has been purchased by one of the two public Chinese companies (Cosco or China Merchants Group).

Thomas Renault

Monday, June 27, 2022 — 12:45-01:45pm

Onsite – Room 116, MSE

What can we learn from online employee reviews ? Using web scraping and NLP to capture employee satisfaction.

Thomas Renault

(Paris 1, CES)

We use a database of more than one million employee reviews sent on the website Glassdoor to explore the driver of employee satisfaction. First, we use machine learning methods to analyze if employee satisfaction can be predicted by analyzing the textual content of employee reviews. Then, we use topic modeling techniques to find the main drivers of employee satisfaction. Last, we apply natural language processing methods to analyze the evolution of the perception of “work from home” and we study the heterogeneity of the importance of work-from-home by company, location, and job.

Juan Munoz-Morales

Monday, June 13, 2022 — 12:45-01:45pm

Onsite – Room 116, MSE

Import Competition, Foreign Inputs, and Labor Adjustment in a Developing Country:
Evidence from Colombian Liberalization

Juan Munoz-Morales

(IÉSEG School of Management, LEM)

co-authored with Leonardo Bonilla (Banco de la República)

We study how import competition and foreign inputs coming from high-income countries affect employment and earnings in less-developed economies. We use administrative data from Colombia, and exploit exogenous tariff reductions that increased Colombian imports from the United States. Import competition decreases employment in a similar magnitude than foreign inputs increase it. The adverse employment effects of import competition are driven by firm exit. Foreign inputs increase non-college educated employment in services by inducing firm entry, but decrease employment in manufacturing by substituting labor demand. Both shocks reduce earnings among college-educated, informal workers. Our results contrast with findings for high-income economies.

Ariell Reshef

Monday, May 30, 2022 — 12:45-01:45pm

Onsite – Room 115, MSE

Production Function Estimation with Multi-Destination Firms

Ariell Reshef

(University of Paris 1,  CES)

co-authored with Geoffrey Barrows (Ecole Polytechnique, CREST, CNRS), Hélène Ollivier (PSE, CNRS)

 We develop a model-based estimator of firm level production functions that takes into account the existence of exporting firms (multi-destination firms, MDFs). Using firm revenues and assuming constant elasticities of substitution, the estimator purges productivity estimates from unobserved demand shifters across markets. We specify a partial equilibrium model in which firms endogenously select destination markets to serve, destination-specific quantities and prices, and variable inputs to hire. We allow for non-constant marginal returns to scale, which give rise to endogenous entry into non-segmented markets. Accordingly, we take into account spillovers across destinations. The model delivers an estimation equation with a simple correction that takes into account MDFs. The estimator builds on the factor share approach of Gandhi, Navarro and Rivers (2020) and delivers a simple way to account for MDFs. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, we show that existing estimation procedures, which assume only one destination, yield unrealistic estimates of variable returns to scale, while our procedure yields plausible ranges for factor output elasticities and demand elasticities. In addition, we show that a control function (proxy)-based estimator that allows for the presence of MDFs is biased and inefficient. We use our estimator to study productivity gains due to exporting (learning by exporting, LBE) in French manufacturing. In contrast to control function estimators and estimators that ignore MDFs, we find significant LBE effects, which are greater in industries that are characterized by greater product differentiation.