Monday, June 25th 2018 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

Jérôme Valette
(CERDI, Université Clermont Auvergne)
with Frédéric Docquier (FNRS & IRES, Université Catholique de Louvain), Riccardo Turati (IRES, Université Catholique de Louvain), and Chrysovalantis Vasilakis (Bangor Business School, United Kingdom)
Birthplace Diversity and Economic Growth: Evidence from the US States in the Post-World War II Period

Abstract: This paper empirically revisits the impact of birthplace diversity on economic growth. We use panel data on US states over the 1960-2010 period. This rich data set allows us to better deal with endogeneity issues and to conduct a large set of robustness checks. Our results suggest that diversity among college-educated immigrants positively affects economic growth. We provide converging evidence pointing at the existence of skill complementarities between workers trained in different countries. These synergies result in better labor market outcomes for native workers and in higher productivity in the R&D sector. The gains from diversity are maximized when immigrants originate from economically or culturally distant countries (but not both), and when they acquired part of their secondary education abroad and their college education in the US. Overall, a 10% increase in high-skilled diversity raises GDP per capita by about 6%. On the contrary, low-skilled diversity has insignificant effects.

 

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Monday, June 11th 2018 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

Manuel Bagues
(Aalto University)
with Pamela Campa (Calgary University)
Can Gender Quotas in Candidate Lists Empower Women? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design

Abstract: We provide a comprehensive analysis of the short- and medium-term effects of gender quotas in candidate lists using evidence from local elections in Spain. In the context of a closed list system with proportional representation, quotas were introduced in 2007 in municipalities with more than 5,000 inhabitants, and were extended in 2011 to municipalities with more than 3,000 inhabitants. Using a Regression Discontinuity Design, we find that quotas increased the share of women in candidate lists by around 8 p.p. and among council members by 4 p.p. However, within three rounds of elections, we do not observe any significant variation in voting behavior, the quality of politicians, the probability that women reach powerful positions such as party leader or mayor, or the size and composition of public finances. Overall, our analysis suggests that quotas in candidate lists fail to have a relevant impact.

 

Monday, March 19th 2018 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

Gonzague Vannoorenberghe
(UC Louvain)
with Mathieu Parenti (ULB)
A Theory of New Trade Agreements

Abstract: This paper develops a model where countries set standards to solve the externalities associated with the consumption of goods. Countries differ in their assessment of the externality and set different standards in autarky. When opening to trade, both countries can stick to their standard, accept the other country’s standard (recognition) or negotiate a middle way (harmonization). We show that trade is not necessarily welfare enhancing when countries choose very different standards in autarky and that a comparison of autarky prices is not sufficient to determine the effects of international trade. The model captures some of the key trade policy issues which emerged during TTIP and CETA negotiations, helping to guide the evaluation of deep trade agreements.

 

Monday, March 5th 2018 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

Ghazala Azmat
(Sciences Po and CEP (LSE) )
with Stefania Simion (University of Edinburgh)
Higher Education Funding Reforms: A Comprehensive Analysis of Educational and Labour Market Outcomes in England

Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of changes in the funding of higher education in England on students’ choices and outcomes. Over the last two decades – through three major reforms in 1998, 2006 and 2012 – undergraduate university education in public universities moved from being free to students and state funded to charging substantial tuition fees to all students. This was done in conjunction with the government offering generous means-tested maintenance grants and loans. Using detailed longitudinal micro-data that follows all students attending state schools in England (more than 90 percent of all school-aged children) from lower education to higher education, we document the socio-economic distributional effects of the 2006 and 2012 policy reforms on a comprehensive set of outcomes, including enrolment, relocation decisions, selection of institution, program of study, and performance within university. For a subset of students, we track them after completing higher education, allowing us to study the labour market effects of the policy reforms. Despite the substantial higher education funding reforms, we do not find large aggregate effect on student enrolment or on other margins. Moreover, the small negative impacts found on enrolment were largely borne on those in higher parts of the wealth distribution – reducing the enrolment gap across socio-economic groups.

 

Monday, February 19th 2018 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

Raja Kali
(University of Arkansas)
with A. W. Horowitz (U. Arkansas) and H. Song (Bellarmine U.)
Re-thinking the aid-growth relationship: A network approach

Abstract: Over forty years of conventional economic analysis has not reached consensus on the effect of foreign aid on recipient country growth. We provide new insight into this relationship by using a network approach to characterize the topological properties of the OECD foreign aid network. Viewing the OECD foreign aid community as an interdependent and complex system, we characterize not only the amount of aid but also the position of both donor and recipient within the network. We find that the degree centrality of the recipient, with an edge inclusion threshold that sets a minimum share of a donor’s aid to a particular recipient, is significantly correlated with the growth impact of that donor’s aid. Contrarily, aid is uncorrelated with growth with a recipient-side filter on the importance of the donor to the recipient. These results suggest that the importance of a recipient within the donor’s network, rather than the volume of aid alone, is associated with the growth impact of bilateral aid. We explore mechanisms for these findings that include the complementarity of aid from multiple attentive donors. Our findings speak to the aid-growth puzzle and suggest that network metrics may illuminate non-obvious channels of aid impact.

 

Monday, January 22nd 2018 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

Maria Bas
(Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne)
with Caroline Paunov (OECD)

 

Input-Quality Upgrading from Trade Liberalization: Evidence on Firm Product Scope and Employment Effects

 

Abstract: Does input-trade liberalization foster firm product innovation and employment size? Using detailed firm-product level data for Ecuador, we exploit the unilateral trade liberalization episode when the country entered the World Trade Organisation in 1996 to identify the causal effect of exogenous input tariff changes on the product scope and employment size of importing firms. We show that access to high-quality important inputs led importers to expand the number of products. The producers of new products and importers of foreign inputs also increased their employment size. Our findings show that input-trade liberalization, through the quality-upgrading channel, resulted in skill-biased production processes.

     Monday, December 4th 2017 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room S/3

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 27, 83 ou 47

Gonzague Vannoorenberghe
(Université Catholique de Louvain)
with M. Parenti (Universite Libre de Bruxelles)

 

A Theory of New Trade Agreements

 

Abstract: This paper develops a model where countries set quality standards to solve the externalities associated with the consumption of goods. Countries differ in their assessment of the externality and set different standards in autarky. When opening to trade, both countries can stick to their standard, accept the other country’s standard (mutual recognition) or negotiate a middle way (harmonization). We show that trade is not necessarily welfare enhancing when countries choose very different standards in autarky and that a comparison of autarky prices is not sufficient to determine the effects of international trade. The model captures some of the key trade policy issues which emerged during TTIP and CETA negotiations, helping to guide the evaluation of deep trade agreements.