Monday, October 26th, 2020 –  13:00 – 14:00

Online Seminar (ZOOM)

Link: https://zoom.univ-paris1.fr/j/98489062558?pwd=MDlhYnBrWXFORUR3SThQdTZFSnViUT09

Meeting ID: 984 8906 2558
Meeting Password: 973593

Toman Barsbai
(University of Bristol)
co-authored with Andreas Pondorfer.

Animal Spirits: The Natural Geography of Economic Behavior.

Abstract: We use insights from behavioral ecology and propose the behavior of wild animals as an exogenous measure of the behavioral constraints of geography. We construct a global grid-cell database of average animal behavior and analyze the spatial correlation between animal and human behavior in three important economic domains: future orientation, geographic mobility, and gender roles. Animal behavior significantly predicts human behavior in all three domains. The spatial correlation holds for hunter-gatherer and modern societies (across and within countries) and also extends to second-generation immigrants. Our results suggest that geography has persistently shaped human behavior with implications for comparative economic development.

Monday, September 28th, 2020 –  13:00 – 14:00

Online Seminar (ZOOM)

Link:  https://zoom.univ-paris1.fr/j/96621514115?pwd=R0xiT3VsM3dEVFVLaHhjVjRweFZ1QT09

Meeting ID: 961 0254 1247
Meeting Password: 
822355
Léa Marchal
(CES)
co-autored with Giulia Sabbadini (Graduate Institute, Geneva)

When Immigrants Meet Exporters: A Reassessment of the Immigrant-Native Wage Gap.

Abstract: This paper studies the relationship between firm export activity and the immigrant-native wage gap. To do so, we use French employer-employee data from 2005 to 2012 for the manufacturing sector which allows one to follow employees over time. In line with previous evidence, we find that exporters pay higher wages and that immigrants earn less than natives. New to this literature, we find that the wage discount of immigrant workers is lower for exporters, and that this result is driven by workers employed in white-collar positions. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that immigrant workers capture an informational rent because they provide exporters with valuable information to access distant and complex foreign markets. We provide evidence for this mechanism by studying how the wage discount of immigrants varies with the complexity of the export activity of the firm approximated by the number of products, the number of destinations and the number of product-destination served by the firm.

Monday, September 14th, 2020 –  13:00 – 14:00

Online Seminar (ZOOM)

Link: https://zoom.univ-paris1.fr/j/96621514115?pwd=R0xiT3VsM3dEVFVLaHhjVjRweFZ1QT09

Meeting ID: 966 2151 4115

Meeting Password: 718641

Clément Bosquet
(CES)
co-autored with Pierre-Philippe Combes, Emeric Henry and Thierry Mayer

Peer Effects in Academic Research: Senders and Receivers.

Abstract: Using an instrument based on a national contest in France determining researchers’ location, we find evidence of peer effects in academia, when focusing on precise groups of senders (producing the spillovers) and receivers (benefiting from the spillovers), defined based on field of specialisation, gender and age. These peer effects are shown to exist even outside formal co-authorship relationships. Furthermore, the match between the characteristics of senders and receivers plays a critical role. In particular, men benefit a lot from peer effects provided by men, while all other types of gender combinations produce spillovers twice as small.

 

 

 

Monday, June 15th, 2020 –  13:00 – 14:00

Online Seminar (ZOOM)

Link: https://zoom.univ-paris1.fr/j/92070008929?pwd=Snh5UUF1KzVvak5QclZPMkIyMTh6dz09

Meeting Password: 791961

Johannes Boehm
(Sciences Po Paris)
co-autored with Swati Dhingra and John Morrow

The Comparative Advantage of Firms.

Abstract: Multiproduct firms dominate production, and their product turnover contributes substantially to aggregate growth. Theories propose that multiproduct firms grow by diversifying into products which need the same know-how or capabilities, but are less clear on what these capabilities are. Input-output tables show firms co-produce in industries that share intermediate inputs, suggesting input capabilities drive multiproduct production patterns. We provide evidence for this in Indian manufacturing: the similarity of a firm’s input mix to an industry’s input mix predicts entry into that industry. We identify the direction of causality from the removal of size-based entry barriers in input markets which made firms more likely to enter industries that were similar in input use to their initial input mix. We rationalize this finding with a model of industry choice and economies of scope to estimate the importance of input capabilities in determining comparative advantage. Complementarities driven by input capabilities make a firm on average 5% (and up to 15%) more likely to produce in an industry. Entry barriers in input markets constrained the comparative advantage of firms and were equivalent to a 10.5 percentage point tariff on inputs.

 

 

 

Monday, March 9th, 2020 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room 19

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 22.

Riccardo Turati
(UCLouvain and IRES)

Network-based connectedness and the diffusion of cultural traits.

This paper empirically investigates the impact of network-based connectedness on the diffusion of cultural traits. Using Gallup World Poll data on 148 countries on individual connectedness, opinions and beliefs, we find that natives who have a connection abroad are associated with higher levels of social behavior, religiosity and gender-egalitarian attitudes. Due to the endogenous nature of the variables, we strongly mitigate the threat of selection into connectedness by showing robust estimates even after controlling for broad measure of connectedness and performing propensity score and covariate matching techniques. Statistical tests are carefully implemented to quantify the selection threat of unobserved factors, which appears negligible. Our evidence shows that connectedness leads to cultural convergence across regions, while increases cultural heterogeneity within regions. Exploring the mechanisms by which these effects occur, we provide evidence that the effects are precisely estimated among less educated natives and that connectedness affects economic outcomes through remittances. We estimate differential cultural effects based on the connection’s country of residence, suggesting a destination-specific transfer of norms. Overall, the effects on social behavior are sizeable at the global level, once simulations based on estimated coefficients are performed. Although robust and certainly not negligible, gender-egalitarian and pro-religiosity effects of connectedness are limited.

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Monday, February 24th, 2020 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room 19

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 22.

Ariell Reshef
(CNRS, PSE, Université Paris 1 and CEPII)
with Gianluca Santoni (CEPII).

Are Your Labor Shares Set in Beijing? The View through the Lens of Global Value Chains.

We study the evolution of labor shares in 1995-2014 while taking into account international trade based on value added concepts. On average, the decline in labor shares (starting around 1980) accelerates in 2001-2007, after which labor shares recover somewhat. In contrast, skilled labor shares consistently increase. The acceleration in the decline in labor shares is associated with increased intensity of intermediate input exporting; this manifests in a sharp increase in the foreign component in upstreamness of industries and countries in global value chains (GVCs). China’s global integration accounts for much of this. Declines in the price of investment together with capital-skill complementarity can explain both the consistent increase in skilled labor shares and the reversal of trend in overall labor shares. Compared to shares in GDP, labor shares in gross national product (GNP) are higher in countries with positive net FDI positions; the uneven spread of multinational activity contributes to greater inequality through this channel.

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Monday, February 10th, 2020 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room 19

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 22.

Lionel Fontagné
(PSE, Université Paris 1and CEPII)
with Houssein Guimbard (CEPII) and Gianluca Orefice (CEPII).

Product-Level trade Elasticities.

Trade elasticity is a crucial parameter in evaluating the welfare impacts of trade liberalization. We estimate trade elasticities at the product level (6-digit of the Harmonized System comprising more than 5,000 product categories) by exploiting the variation in bilateral applied tariffs for each product category for the universe of available country pairs. This is done by constructing a panel of bilateral applied tariffs and bilateral trade covering the period 2001 to 2016. We address potential endogeneity issues as well as heteroskedasticity and selection bias due to zero flows. The obtained trade elasticities are centered around -5. We finally highlight the differences in the gains from trade arising from considering heterogeneous rather than average trade elasticities. All product level elasticities are made publicly available for sake of scrutiny and use by other researchers.

 

 

 

Monday, December 16th, 2019 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room 116

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 22.

Davide Suverato
(ETH Zurich)
with Sebastian Doerr (University of Zurich), Dalia Marin (Technical University of Munich) and Thierry Verdier (Paris School of Economics)

Mis-allocation within Firms: Internal and International Trade.

In the global market firms operating in many market segments coexist with single-segment firms, each behaving as a competitive monopolist. Multi-segment organizations are characterized by agency problems between the owner and divisional managers competing for funds. In equilibrium, divisions of multi-segment firms are financed with more capital than single-segment firms with the same technology. The distortion is greater in the more efficient divisions of the more efficient firms. This within-firm mis-allocation explains why the market-to-book value of multi-segment firms is lower than for single-segment firms (conglomerate discount) as observed in the data. The model also predicts that the cost structure of a multi-segment firm responds endogenously to competition. This is a distinctive feature of our theory, which leads to conclude that a more integrated open economy imposes greater discipline on internal competition for capital within firms, thus improving the efficiency of internal capital markets. We test the predictions of the model on publicly listed US firms. We find that the increase in Chinese imports between 1999-2007 causally reduces mis-allocation. The conglomerate discount decreases by 32%. The marginal cost at the segment level falls, by 5% in the worst segments and up to 15% in the best segments of multi-segment firms.

 

 

 

Monday, December 2nd, 2019 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room 116

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 22.

Ilham Ksebi
(PSE)

Are they over satisfied? The gap between subjective and objective position of immigrants in the Italian labor market.

Abstract: According to objective standards, women and immigrants have worse labour market achievements than men and locals, yet they report relatively high levels of perceived income and job satisfaction. In this paper, I use a large sample of workers taken from the Italian labour force survey to investigate this matter in two steps. First, I separately asses the determinants of the objective and the subjective work perspective by stressing the role of the gender and the migration status, together with other personal characteristics of workers and labour market variables. Moreover, I estimate the gap between subjective and objective work perception by breaking it along many dimensions. The estimation results reveal that gender has a stronger effect on the gap with respect to the migration status. In addition, I show that a substantial subjective gap is observed among immigrants coming from developing countries.

 

Monday, November 18th, 2019 –  13:00 – 14:00

Maison des Sciences Économiques, Room 116

 Maison des Sciences Économiques, 106-112 bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris, Métro 5 Campo Formio, bus 57, 67, 22.

Francesco Manaresi
(Bank of Italy)
with Vicenzo Scrutinio (University of Bologna), Alessandro Palma (University of Naples Parthenope) and Luca Salvatici (Rome 3 university)

Export Management and Labour Demand: Evidence from an Italian Policy Experiment.

Abstract: We study the effect of improving the export orientation of management on firm behavior, exploiting an ideal natural experiment. In 2016 the Italian Government introduced a subsidy for firms hiring temporary export managers, granted to applications received on a specific “click day” on a first come-first served basis until available resources were exhausted. Combining complete information on winning and losing applicants with detailed firm balance-sheets and linked employer-employee data, we identify how the new management capabilities affected firm’s employment and investment policies and, ultimately, its productivity.